Wednesday, August 26, 2020

International Marketing Wesfarmers Limited

Question: Talk about the International Marketing Wesfarmers Limited. Answer: Presentation Wesfarmers Limited is one of the major differentiated companies of Australia with a few global business tasks. The organization was built up in the time of 1914 and from that point, Wesfarmers has become the biggest partnership in Australia ( 2017). The broadened business activities of Wesfarmers incorporate market, alcohol, inn, comfort stores, office supplies, home upgrades, departmental stores, vitality, composts, and numerous others. As indicated by the current promoting circumstance of the organization, Wesfarmers can be portrayed as a serious association. The significant promoting objective of the association is to convey high caliber of items to its clients so as to fulfill the necessities of the clients. Different business procedures of Wesfarmers incorporate creation, dissemination, deals, advertising and different client administrations. It very well may be seen that there are four phases of the existence pattern of the different results of Wesfarmers; thes e stages are presentation of the item, development of the item, development of the item and decrease of the item ( 2017). SWOT Analysis of Wesfarmers The SWOT examination of Wesfarmers is demonstrated as follows: Qualities One of the significant qualities of Wesfarmers is colossal business involvement with the Australian market. The organization has been working together in over 18 decades. This immense experience can be utilized to make global endeavors. Sensible and reasonable cost of the different items is another key quality of Wesfarmers. This could be a viable methodology to set up universal business (Cheng, Green and Ko 2014). The great notoriety and brand name is another significant quality of Wesfarmers. With the assistance of these two, the organization has had the option to build up a solid client base (Murray 2013). The chiefs and supervisors of Wesfarmers have powerful business aptitudes in various zones of the business. So as to grow universally, the abilities and information on the executives and administrators are the significant devices. Shortcomings Absence of mechanical nearness can be seen in various business parts of Wesfarmers. This can be considered as a significant shortcoming of the organization. It tends to be seen that there is an absence of common obligation of Wesfarmers with the economy of Australia. At the point when opportunity arrives, it tends to be a significant shortcoming of the organization. Openings The great monetary state of Australia has expanded the removal salary of the individuals of Australia. This makes business open doors for Wesfarmers as the organization can build the income and benefit of the organization by satisfying the interest of the clients. Wesfarmers has the chance to build up the center skills of the association for the nearness of enormous rivalry in this industry. With the assistance of experienced and handy group of the board, Wesfarmers has the chance to extend its business around the world. Dangers The consistent increment in the quantity of contenders is a significant danger for Wesfarmers as it is hampering the business chances of the organization. The negative impact of the world financial downturn on the business tasks of Wesfarmers is a significant danger for the organization (Ball 2014). To follow various types of worldwide principles and guidelines at the hour of universal business is another significant danger for the organization. Table 1: SWOT Analysis of Wesfarmers (Source: as made by Author) Examination of Customer Market, Position and Segmentation Wesfarmers pays attention to their clients very as the organization guarantee appropriate client commitment in each degree of business. It very well may be seen that each segment of the matter of Wesfarmers speaks with their clients in the most ideal manner. All the organizations of Wesfarmers have very much evolved correspondence instrument so as to speak with the clients of the association. Wesfarmers rushes to tackle the issues of the clients (Wood 2012). Wesfarmers have taken a portion of the significant techniques so as to situate themselves in the market. With the assistance of solid clients unwaveringness and brand trust, Wesfarmers has had the option to well position themselves in the market. Another significant methodology in such manner is to make, use and react the most recent item inclines in the market ( 2017). Wesfarmers can misuse each open door in the market. These are the significant situating methodology of Wesfarmers. Taking a gander at the various types of results of Wesfarmers, it very well may be comprehended that individuals from all sections independent of their age, sex and pay are the significant clients of Wesfarmers. Suggested Country In light of the above investigation of various business parts of Wesfarmers, it is suggested that Singapore will be the reasonable nation for Wesfarmers to dispatch its various types of items. The reasons are talked about beneath. Proposals Different reasons lead to the determination of Singapore as the appropriate nation for the worldwide business of Wesfarmers. Four central point for this situation are item, value, spot and advancement. If there should arise an occurrence of item, the sorts of item Wesfarmers produce have an incredible interest in Singapore like departmental store, food items and others. If there should be an occurrence of value procedure, the political and administrative state of the host nation is extraordinary influencers. The political state of Singapore is steady and it suits the universal business. Moreover, the administrative structure of Singapore is reasonable to the global organizations. The creating economy of Singapore has a ton of interest. Subsequently, Singapore is the ideal spot for Wesfarmers (Zikmund et al. 2013). Pretty much every sort of limited time exercises are accessible in Singapore to advance the results of Wesfarmers. In this manner, in view of the above conversation, it ver y well may be comprehended that Singapore is the most reasonable spot top dispatch the results of Wesfarmers. End The fundamental point of the report was to investigate the global business chances of the Australian organization, Wesfarmers. From the above conversation, it very well may be seen that experience and moderate cost are the significant qualities of Wesfarmers. Then again, the nearness of numerous contenders and the effect of world monetary downturn are the significant dangers of Wesfarmers. From that point forward, the name of Singapore is suggested as the host universal nation for Wesfarmers. The fundamental explanation is that the political and administrative state of the nation is well appropriate for the organizations of Wesfarmers. References Ball, L.M., 2014.Long-term harm from the Great Recession in OECD countries(No. w20185). National Bureau of Economic Research. Cheng, M.M., Green, W.J. what's more, Ko, J.C.W., 2014. The effect of key significance and affirmation of maintainability markers on financial specialists' decisions.Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory,34(1), pp.131-162. Murray, B., 2013. Culture Is the Brand: Making Your Company's Culture the Essence of Your Brand.Effective Executive,16(4), p.11. (2017).2016 Strategy Briefing Day. [online] Available at: instructions day-presentation.pdf?sfvrsn=0 [Accessed 17 Apr. 2017]. (2017).The Wesfarmers Way. [online] Available at: our identity is/the-wesfarmers-way [Accessed 17 Apr. 2017]. (2017).Who we are. [online] Available at: our identity is/who-we-are [Accessed 17 Apr. 2017]. Wood, T., 2012. Returning the client in front. Zikmund, W.G., Babin, B.J., Carr, J.C. what's more, Griffin, M., 2013.Business examination techniques. Cengage Learning

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Cell Phone in Life Essay Example for Free

Wireless in Life Essay In present day life, mobile phone is an essential device to all individuals. To everybody, a PDA is an enchantment instrument, which is a mean of media transmission, a diversion gadget and an extraordinary work supporter. To me, I can't envision how I can live without my telephone. The essential capacity of a mobile phone is to interface individuals. We utilize our phones to speak with different ones. For instance, we can converse with guardians and send our adoration to them in a thousand mile away in a second. We can help individuals who are in a crisis with a finger. Or then again basically, we can assemble our companions to hang out mess around with simple calls or messages. A PDA is an enchantment device, which can assist us with reaching individuals just with a hand. In addition, a phone is a magnificent instrument we requirement for our examining and business. At school, a few utilizations of wireless assistance us tackling the issues in class. For instance, we can record the talks of teachers in class and watch his talk again at home so as to all the more likely comprehend the information, or while applying information, we can take a few pictures in the lab class to watch our lab results better. At work, our mobile phones can be a USB to store information, or a smaller than normal PC to send our report, and even a little compact PC to ride the Internet, which is basically essential to each agent. A phone is crucial to a business visionary or a student‘s vocation. At long last, another preferred position of phones is to engage. In our phones, we can store our main tunes to tune in to when feeling tragic, recordings and photos of our darling ones to see when we miss them, which makes us more joyful. We can likewise mess around in our mobile phones, helping us consuming off pressure and beginning to feel upbeat once more. Without PDAs, our life would be significantly less pleasant. For example, your closest companion is disturbed about issues of her or his family. You can comfort her or him by your main tunes, and afterward search for something fun, similar to game or interesting video to unwind. With a wireless, we will never must be dismal for quite a while. Today, everyone gets ready oneself with a mobile phone, similar to an indispensable thing in their advanced life. As the PDAs are improved with advance capacities, they will make our lives increasingly helpful and agreeable. Individuals are encouraged to outfitted themselves with a phone to improve their lives.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay The Unethical of Euthanasia or Mercy Killing

The word euthanasia is taken from the Greek word ‘Eu Thanos’, meaning ‘good death’. Euthanasia involves an action carried out by a person other than the patient to end the life of the patient suffering from a terminal condition. This action is based on the belief that the act is putting the patient of their misery: this action has also been called mercy killings. There are a number of ethical concerns that arise when the terminally ill patient and healthcare providers decide on the best course of care for the dying patient. The definition of ethical is upright, honest, and compliant with accepted standards of social or professional behavior. Those people who think euthanasia is morally right believe that a terminally ill person has the†¦show more content†¦Healthcare providers may decide to euthanize an elderly patient just because they think the patient is going to die eventually because of their age. If we place the decision of life and death and healthcare provider’s hands it will lead to murder. Our society is working to educate individuals on the importance of seeking medical advice, getting blood work done and getting a yearly physical. However, one of the most important changes in recent years is the increasing emphasis insurance companies have placed on healthcare providers to control costs. Great discrepancy in access to care occurs, depending on the type and size of the system, source of payment for services, private versus public programs, availability of an accessibility to providers, individual preferences, and insurance coverage or ability to pay. The existing system continues to be oriented to treatment of acute or episodic conditions rather than the promotion of health and complete care. It would be cheaper for insurances if health care providers used euthanasia for those patients that are terminally ill instead of treating their illness. If euthanasia was legal healthcare providers would have to decide to do the right thing or make more money in treating patients with disabilities and incurably diseases. â€Å"Euthanasia, if it was legalized, could become a money maker tool for big HMOs, because drugs used in euthanasia would only cost aboutShow MoreRelatedEuthanasi Should It Be Legalized? Essay1125 Words   |  5 PagesEuthanasia â€Å"mercy killing† should it be legalized in New Zealand? Euthanasia debates aren’t new to the surface as people has been talking about it for more than a decade. One side of the issue is the government and other organizations that stand against legalising euthanasia as they thi nk it is unethical and would be considered as the other face to suicide. The other side of the issue are some doctors and professionals that think euthanasia should be legalised in New Zealand, so people that sufferRead MorePsysician Assicted Suicide1071 Words   |  4 Pagesbecause she felt it was necessary; even though it clearly was not. He heard her desperate plead and decided to help. He used his own invention called the Suicide Machine: a way of killing an ill patient by means of injecting lethal drugs into the patient via an IV, an example of active euthanasia. Active euthanasia occurs when an action is done with the intention of ending a persons life, such as injecting a fatal drug or medication. Finally, in a public park inside his Volkswagen van, KevorkianRead MoreMany years ago, in a small town in Michigan, a woman by the name of Janet Adkins was diagnosed with1200 Words   |  5 Pagestechnically called suicide; even though it clearly was. He heard her desperate plead and decided to help. He used his own invention called the Suicide Machine: a way of killing an ill patient by means of injecting lethal drugs via an I.V. This is an example of one of two types of euthanasia, known as Active Euthanasia. Active Euthanasia occurs when an action is done with the intention of ending a persons life, such as injecting a fatal drug or medication (Kastenbaum 531). Finally, in a public park insideRead MoreIs Euthanasia A Mercy Killing Or Assisted Suicide?947 Words   |  4 Pagesof which that is most commonly discussed and debated is euthanasia. Also referred to as mercy killing or assisted suicide, euthanasia is defined as the â€Å"act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals in a relatively painless way for reasons of mercy†. (Euthanasia) Though such a basic definition is provided, mercy killing can be classified into several different categories. Voluntary euthanasia is performed with the permission and consent of the personRead MoreEuthanasia Essay1243 Words   |  5 PagesEuthanasia In this term paper I have chosen to speak about euthanasia because this is a topic that provokes as much controversy as capital punishment, primarily because it is irreversible. The question of euthanasia being right or wrong is one that most would prefer left alone. My purpose here in this term paper is to show forth view points of both sides of the arguments and finally conclude with my views on the topic. Let me start by explaining what is the exactRead MoreThe Controversy Of The Practice Of Euthanasia1605 Words   |  7 PagesThe controversy of a doctor assisting their patient who is already dying, end their life sooner to save them from continuous unnecessary pain and agony has been the topic of controversy for years. The practice of euthanasia is in my opinion a mercy and should not be banned because in reality it doesn’t physically hurt anyone. You could say it hurts the patient but then again that patient is already in tremendous pain or in an incapacitated state of no recovery, as in paralyzed or brain damage etcRead MoreEssay about Euthanasia as Mercy or Murder1311 Words   |  6 PagesEuthanasia as Mercy or Murder In keeping with the root definition of euthanasia- literally [meaning] good death- [supporters] of euthanasia insist they are talking about helping terminally ill patients in insufferable pain die a dignified death- at the patients request. But this bears no resemblance to the true picture of the actual practice of euthanasia in the United States (Lyons np). Passive euthanasia is death by nonintervention, meaning a health care worker can discontinueRead MoreThe Ethical Dilemma Of The Medical Field1619 Words   |  7 Pagesfield today is Euthanasia. Euthanasia is a process that entails deliberately ending a person’s life, with the intention of relieving their pain and suffering. As such, it is legal in some countries while illegal in some. The US Law accords all informed adults the right to die even though the law surrounding it varies from one state to the other. There are however a couple of ethical issues that come up as a result of the practice. The major debate has been whether or not Euthanasia is right, or wrongRead MoreEssay about Euthanasia should not be legalized in the US622 Words   |  3 Pagesa patient’s right to choose to end his or her life by means of euthanasia. Euthanasia is the practice of ending a life in a painless manner. It has been and still remains an extremely controversial topic in the US. Does a person have the right to die? Should euthanasia be legalized? Legalizing euthanasia has become a burning topic to doctors, societies, governments, and nations. To me, the US government should not legalize euthanasia. I agree that people should have the right to do anything theyRead MoreMercy Killing1858 Words   |  8 PagesNovember 11, 2010 Mercy killing is it justifiable? There are many perspectives on the issue of mercy killing and if it’s justifiable. Mercy killing is the killing of another human being. As this issue is closely monitored we see that, euthanasia involves the ethics of doctor’s practices, and many other problems that may come up in this controversial issue. Three main perspectives are mercy killing is not justifiable for any reason, mercy killing is justifiable, and mercy killing is justifiable to

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Roosevelt And Roosevelt s President Essay - 1495 Words

Throughout the beginning of the 1900’s, Roosevelt became immensely favored and adored by the majority of United States citizens. After Theodore Roosevelt served his terms of presidency from 1901-1909, he declared that he would not accept a renomination for another term. With being in control of the Republican Party and also becoming quite favored, Roosevelt was able to name who his successor would be. With having being so popular and trustworthy, Roosevelt commanded the Republican Party to stay loyal to his ways by nominating and supporting Roosevelt’s secretary of war, William Howard Taft. When Roosevelt left office, he stated, â€Å"I have the profound satisfaction of knowing that he [Taft] will do all in his power to further every one of the great causes for which I have fought and that he will persevere in every one of the great governmental policies in which I most firmly believe† (6). However, when election time came around, many Americans were not impressed by the actions that Taft had taken and the way he carried himself. Many Americans were against Taft and believed that he was not competent enough to take on the job. When Taft ran for his second term in 1912, his opposers, betrayal of the Republican Party and his seemingly lack of political knowledge and training cost him the election. Mid-way through his first term, Taft had changed his motives and wanted to remove so called â€Å"disloyal† members from the Republican party. Around this time, Taft was also in aShow MoreRelatedPresident Roosevelt s President Of The United States Essay1267 Words   |  6 PagesWhen President McKinley was assassinated Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States at the age of 43. He is the youngest president in our nation’s history. Though President Roosevelt was young with fresh ideas filled with high energy as you will see that even after he became president he continued to do some things he enjoyed in his life. Roosevelt while still in the presidency, he continued to box inside the White House. In one of those instances while sparing he sparedRead MorePresident Roosevelt s New Deal971 Words   |  4 PagesWhen President Roosevelt took office, the odds were stacked against him almost immediately. This was due to Roosevelt having to take on the task of getting America out of the Depression that It plunged into during the Herbert Hoover administration. The Great Depression happened through a myriad of events that ranged from bank failures to the stock market crashing multiple times in a short amount of time. The nation s economy was in turmoil and unemployment and poverty were at an all-time high andRead MorePresident Roosevelt s New Deal1025 Words   |  5 PagesFranklin Delano Roosevelt is consistently listed just behind Lincoln and Washington on ratings of American presidents by many historians. There are even some media sources, such as Newsweek and the Schlesinger Presidential Poll that list FDR as the top modern president. He was loved by the American people at the time, as evident by his four terms, the only president to do so. To the average and uninformed American, this may seem to be a fair assessment of the president that led his country out ofRead MorePresident Roosevelt s Foreign Policy1154 Words   |  5 Pagespower, president McKinley was assassinated on 14 September 1901. The boisterous and aggressive Vice President Theodore Roosevelt would now fill the role of President. Unlike McKinley, Roosevelt did not shy away from conflict. He was ambitious to lead the charge in expanding America’s presence with an aggressive foreign policy. Shortly following the United States rise to imperialistic power president McKinley was assassinated on 14 September 1901. The boisterous and aggressive Vice President TheodoreRead MorePresident Roosevelt s President Of The Republican Progressive Party1481 Words   |  6 Pagespresident’s name is Theodore Roosevelt. His nickname is Teddy. Did you know the Teddy Bear was named after him? President Roosevelt was in office from September 14, 1901 until March 4, 1909. He was the 26th president of the United States. President Roosevelt was in the Republican Progressive Party. Theodore Roosevelt was born in New York City, New York on October 27, 1858. He died in Cove Neck, New York on January 6, 1919. He was 60 years old. President Roosevelt’s wives names wereRead MoreTheodore Roosevelt s President Of The United States967 Words   |  4 PagesTheodore Roosevelt became president after president McKinley was assassinated. Roosevelt was the 26th president of the United States from 1901-1909. Theodore Roosevelt was the youngest United States president in history. Theodore Roosevelt was one of the most popular and important to ever serve in the Chief Executive Office. During Theodores Roosevelts time as president he accomplished many things while president. A couple of his accomplishments were created when he introduced the Square Deal. TheRead MorePresident Theodore Roosevelt s Military Power1468 Words   |  6 Pages Although some believe that president Theodore Roosevelt abused his executive power, he did not. He was a very successful president who used his powers as president expertly during his presidency. 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How would you react? What would you do? As President Roosevelt delivered his speech he had two main points that he wanted to relay to the nation. The first point was to encourage Congress to formally declare war on Japan. Insisting that the attack was just a start to the many more to come. The second point was to gather the support of the American people; in the war efforts that he was proposing, President Franklin used major American cities such as San Francisco, ChicagoRead MorePresident Roosevelt s Successor, Taft876 Words   |  4 PagesAlthough William Howard Taft had been President Theodore Roosevelt’s handpicked successor, Taft soon proved to be incompetent in many foreign and domestic affairs. To many Americans, it quickly became evident that Taft did not share the same political viewpoints as his successor, Roosevelt, had. Compared to Roosevelt, Taft was not as energetic and ardent; his policies caused much controversy from the Republican Party and Roosevelt himself (Brinkley 606). In addition to Taft’s passivity towards Congress

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Workers without Jobs Free Essays

GAP cannot reflect positive or negative externalities Involve In the consumption and production UT these externalities do affect on people’s living standard. Negative externalities such as pollution brings environmental costs to society but not calculated by GAP. Positive externalities such as technological advance benefits to society but it is not count in GAP. We will write a custom essay sample on Workers without Jobs or any similar topic only for you Order Now Economic well-being would be under-value or over-value if GAP is the only single measure of economic well-being. 3. Leisure helps people enjoy a better life. In countries with lower GAP, the welfare gain from leisure can compensate the welfare loss from low GAP. Explain why frictional and structural unemployment are unavoidable in most of the economies. There are always some workers without Jobs, even when the overall economy is doing well. For example, people now prefer cell phones from Apple than from Monika. Monika decides to cut down Its employees due to the decrease of revenue. It takes time for him (the worker) to search another job that is best suited for him. In this period when matching jobs and workers, he is unemployed and it is called frictional unemployment. Another example is that now most of the textile factories decide to move to mainland China. A worker in one of these factories loses her job, however, he Is unable to learn or change new working skills or knowledge on other specialist or other field. And therefore, she cannot find a new Job In her Orlando Industry and also in other industries. This imbalance between the skills and other characteristics of some workers and the needs of workers in the labor market causes unemployment called structural unemployment. When unemployment consist only frictional and structural unemployment, unemployment is at natural rate. In most of the economies, there are always some reasons causing frictional or structural unemployment. Employment rate never fall to zero it fluctuates around the natural rate of unemployment. Therefore, frictional and structural unemployment are unavoidable in most of the economies. What are the three major functions of money? Discuss how these functions be affected by inflation. Account and a store of value. A medium of exchange is an item that buyers give to sellers when they purchase goods and services. When you buy a shirt at a clothing store, the store gives you the shirt, and you give the store your money. This transfer of money from buyer to seller allows the transaction to take place. When you walk into a store, you are confident that the store will accept your money for the items it is selling because money is the commonly accepted medium of exchange. A unit of account is the yardstick people use to post prices and record debts. When you go shopping, you might observe that a shirt costs $30 and a hamburger costs $3. Even though it would be accurate to say that the price of a shirt is 10 hamburgers and the price of a hamburger is 1110 of a shirt, prices are never quoted in this way. Similarly, if you take out a loan from a bank, the size of your future loan repayments ill be measured in dollars, not in a quantity of goods and services. When we want to measure and record economic value, we use money as the unit of account. A store of value is an item that people can use to transfer purchasing power from the present to the future. When a seller accepts money today in exchange for a good or service, that seller can hold the money and become a buyer of another good or service at another time. Money is not the only store of value in the economy: A person can also transfer purchasing power from the present to the future by holding monetary assets such as stocks and bonds. The term wealth is used to refer to the total of all stores of value, including both money and monetary assets. What assumptions are necessary to argue that the quantity equation of money implies that increases in the money supply lead to proportional increases in the general price (a) Discuss two reasons why the GAP deflator gives a different rate of inflation than the ICP does. 1. 12 PEP (6 marks) (b) Explain the likely effect of a binding minimum wage on the unemployment rate. (5 marks) (a) Suppose an economy that is initially at full employment faces a tremendous drop n imports. I. How to cite Workers without Jobs, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020


Real-Life Heroes Essay Heroes abound in present times and many of them are fictional characters, for instance, Superman, Wonder Woman, and Thor. They’ve been significant in many people’s childhood and teenage years, but there’re also real-life heroes who embody the best human qualities and are acknowledged for making the difference. Heroes have always lived on the borderline between real world and that of imagination. On the one hand, we’re aware they’re not real because adults are constantly telling us heroes only exist in cartoons and movies. On the other hand, it seems that superheroes are real because they make us feel courageous when confronting adversities. That’s how a real-life hero can materialize himself these days: encouraged by a fictional character that, with his/her noble disposition, helps people deal with their fears and guides them into worthy achievement. Additionally, a modern, real-life hero isn’t a costumed crime fighter, but an ordinary person who’s resolved to be â€Å"braver five minutes longer. † To be a modern hero comes along with great responsibilities, thus an ordinary man’s mentality has to suffer a modification in order to understand that such responsibility is assumed, not imposed. Consequently, the capacity to take on responsibility where no one else would regard themselves as responsible, leads real-life heroes to do something about a situation rather than being helpless victims of it. The English poet Matthew Arnold once said: â€Å"The will is free; Strong is the soul, and wise, and beautiful; The seeds of god-like power are in us still; Gods are we, bards, saints, heroes, if we will! † which may mean that there’re honorable characteristics inherently human that can make anyone of us a real-life hero, opposite to cultural stereotypes and committed to embrace diversity –heroes may come in all sizes, colors, and shapes. Hence, those who organize the neighborhood to get a stop sign, open children’s libraries, and protest against the threat of contamination are the ordinary people who’ve taken responsibility regarding an affair and have done a meaningful effort to improve it. Finally, heroism doesn’t consist of wearing capes and tight clothes, and having superpowers to fight evil. Instead, it’s enough to develop a sense of responsibility to take a stand in those subjects that require a brave person to do something about them. We can all be modern-days heroes and be acknowledged for our contribution to a better society. Let’s make our own version of superheroes now! Bibliography: Arnold, Matthew. The Poems of Matthw Arnold. 1840-1867. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1909; From, 2011. Debra, D., Norloff, C., Carne, P. Q Skills for Success. Reading and Writing 4 Student Book with Online Practice. USA: Oxford University Press; Pap/Psc St edition (2011)

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Piaget v. Vygotsky free essay sample

Both Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky have had a huge impact on learning and teaching methods. Although they have different views on how children learn, they both suggest helpful methods of teaching. Piaget and Vygotsky both focus on the idea of constructivism. Constructivist theories believe learning includes real-world situations, language, interaction, and collaboration with others. Piaget believed in cognitive constructivism and Vygotsky believed in social constructivism. They both had logical ideas with some similarities, but their theories also differed. First off, Piaget was a strong believer in cognitive constructivism and offered that children learn with schemes, accommodation, and assimilation. He also suggested that learner go through stages of learning. These include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. The sensorimotor stage occurs before the age of 2 and includes learning through movement and senses. Towards the end of this stage, children begin to develop object permanence. We will write a custom essay sample on Piaget v. Vygotsky or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Between the ages of 2-7, the child is at the preoperational stage. At this age, children are not able to think about their actions and believe everyone has the same viewpoint as themselves. They also pick up the idea of conservation at this stage. Next is the concrete operational stage which happens between 7 to 11 years of age. By this time, children have intelligence based on logic and concrete references. Eleven years and up is considered the formal operational stage. During this stage, abstract thinking really takes off and a child can think about probabilities and analogies. An example of a classroom that involves Piaget’s cognitive constructivism theory would include challenging activities for the children such as simulations, field trips, and model building. Overall, his theory includes providing a child with knowledge that is meaningful and relatable. On the other hand, Lev Vygotsky believed in social constructivism as a means of learning. His theory suggested that children learn best in a collaborative environment involving socialization. He believed that a child must interact with the social environment on an interpersonal level. Once this has occurred, the child can internalize their experience and construct new ideas. For Vygotsky, culture and social context are critical in learning and he believed that’s when children learn the best. He came up with the ZPD, which stands for zone of proximal development. The ZPD is the distance between what a learner can do with help and what they can do without help. He thought that children learn best within this zone because it advances their learning and challenges them. Vygotsky believed that with the help of a teacher or mentor, students could understand concepts that they wouldn’t be able to know on their own. A classroom including Vygotsky’s social constructivism theory would include meaningful content and content that relates to the real-world. Teacher-student and student-student interaction are key in the classroom according to Vygotsky and will produce strategies such as questioning, summarizing, predicting, and clarifying. A similarity between Piaget and Vygotsky is that they both provided views on cognitive development using constructivism. They were both interested in furthering the learning of children using cognitive processes. Also, another similarity that they share is that they both believed that societal influences established cognitive growth in children. They agreed that learning is affected by the context in which a subject is taught. Although their contexts were different, the students’ beliefs and attitudes contributed to the way a child learns. Even though their theories differed, they both believed internalizing the information learned was important and constructivism allows the student to analyze, gather, filter, and reflect on the information they are provided. As for differences, Piaget and Vygotsky had quite a few. Obviously, their theories differed especially with social context. Vygotsky believed that development must include social context, unlike Piaget. Vygotsky focused on learning from the environment, while Piaget didn’t see the significance of this. Also, Piaget thought learning happened after development and Vygotsky proposed that learning takes place before development. While Vygotsky focused on language and socializing, Piaget viewed language as a stepping stone to development and didn’t view it as much of an importance. Another difference is that Vygotsky thought that student-student interaction is vital because of the social aspect. On the other hand, Piaget saw student-student collaboration as helpful because it could stimulate thinking, but it wasn’t nearly as important in the cognitive development of children. Also a difference is that Piaget believed in four different stages and ages of development, whereas Vygotsky didn’t believe in any set stages. As we know now, there are multiple intelligences and no two children learn the same. It is hard to choose one theory or the other because every child’s need should be implemented. Teachers should include group work along with individual work and not resort to only one. Piaget and Vygotsky both have valid suggestions for learning, but I believe that time and learning has changed over the years. They both made huge contributions to learning and development and even though their views are different, they both offer logical theories that are still important today.